The Pacific Northwest Forum
Volume VII, Number 2, Pages 29-53
Summer-Fall, 1994

Official Stanley Cup Photo, 1917 Seattle Metropolitans
Hockey Hall of Fame Resource Center, Toronto
Players, top to bottom and left to right: Holmes, Rowe, Carpenter, Walker,
Foyston, Muldoon, Morris, Wilson, Rickey, and Riley

That Championship Season
The Story of the 1917
Seattle Metropolitans

by Gary M. Bernklow

GARY M. BERNKLOW is completing his master's degree in American history at Eastern Washington University. He has been playing hockey since the age of six, and currently plays in a Spokane recreational league for Muffler Clinic.

-- After this introduction was written, Muffler Clinic fared well on the ice, but Gary Bernklow was less fortunate. He broke his leg during a game. Despite the injury, he completed his M.A. work on schedule (but not the hockey season). He is now is now living in Massachusetts and is planning to start a regional journal for New England history. --

(note added in 1996)


Sir Frederick Arthur Stanley--Baron Stanley of Preston in the County of Lancaster, in the Peerage of Great Britain, Knight Grand Cross of the Most Honourable Order of the Bath, and sixth Governor-General of Canada--was a sports fan. While serving at Government House in Ottawa, he grew especially fond of ice hockey. Servants at Government House--known as Rideau Hall--flooded the grounds so that Lord Stanley's two sons could play the game, with the Coldstream Guards as their teammates.(1)

Calling themselves the Rideau Rebels, the team proved to be more than just a recreational diversion for the players. Before long, the team had challenged, and beaten, most of the best teams in Canada. Finally, the Rebels took on a mighty Ottawa city club for the self-proclaimed championship of Canada for 1893.

Although the Rebels eventually lost to the Ottawa club, Lord Stanley's enthusiasm for the game did not diminish. However, he was troubled by the fact that, despite its win, the Ottawa club had nothing to show for its effort. They could call themselves the victors, but took home no spoils.

To correct this, Lord Stanley invested ten pounds--about $48.67--in a short, punch-bowl shaped, silver cup, lined with gold and perched on an ebony base, to symbolize amateur hockey supremacy in Canada.(2)

Ironically, Lord Stanley never witnessed a Cup match. Shortly after his introduction of the challenge cup, he returned to his native England. When the Montreal Amateur Athletic Association beat the Ottawa Generals on March 22, 1893, the first Stanley Cup was awarded without the presence of its benefactor.(3)

The Stanley Cup was still a challenge trophy at the turn of the century. Any team could challenge the current Cup holders in hopes of taking away the celebrated mug. When Lord Stanley set down the rules for Cup play, he stipulated that it must be a challenge trophy, it must go to an amateur team in Canada, and it would be awarded by an impartial panel who would have carte-blanche regarding its final disposition. The last condition proved to be the most important. Wielding supreme power, the Stanley Cup Commission eventually started awarding the Cup to professional teams scarcely ten years after Stanley donated the trophy.

While the game of ice hockey probably did not originate in Canada, residents of that country took to the game quickly and adopted it as their own. The game had been imported from Europe by bored British soldiers stationed on the Canadian frontier. Although officially, Canada's national sport remained (and still is) lacrosse, hockey swept across the dominion at the turn of the twentieth century. Mainly centered around the cities of Montreal, Ottawa, and Toronto, the game flourished.


In Montreal, the boys were exposed to
the game that they would be involved with
for the rest of their lives.


Eventually, hockey reached the west coast of Canada. More precisely, the city of Vancouver became wildly enthusiastic about the sport. Living in British Columbia at the time was a lumber mill operator named Joe Patrick. His two sons, Lester and Frank, devotees of the game of hockey, set about to form their own professional league on the west coast. In 1912, they formed the Pacific Coast Hockey Association. Five years later, Lord Stanley's cup would fall into the hands of not only a professional hockey team, but an American one as well--the Seattle Metropolitans.

THE BIRTH OF WEST COAST HOCKEY

Christmas, 1892 was a special occasion in the Patrick household, located sixty miles west of Quebec City in the town of Daveluyville. Lester and Frank, the two eldest of three sons born to Joe Patrick and his wife, Grace, received their first pair of ice skates. They were crude, metal blades that clamped onto ordinary shoes and were tightened by a lever. The boys left after dinner, along with their father and younger brother, Ted, and hiked the "four or five miles" to the river to try out their new gifts. Lester, the senior of the three boys at nine years old, wobbled around the frozen surface without fear. Frank--only seven--was more cautious, until his father grew weary of his trepidation and literally threw him out on the ice. "My immediate reaction was to get up and run on the skates," Frank later wrote, "Which I did. And that, incidentally, is how I skated throughout my school, college, and professional careers, always more like a sprinter than a skater."(4)

By the time Joe Patrick expanded his business and moved his family to Montreal one year later, both Lester and Frank had become adequate skaters. In Montreal, the boys were exposed to the game that they would be involved with for the rest of their lives. Although the frozen ponds and rivers in Quebec's hinterlands provided ample opportunity to improve their skating, they had never even heard of ice hockey. Lester Patrick later recalled, "I had never even seen a hockey stick, up to this time."(5)


The Patrick boys emulated their new-found heroes,
rushing across the ice...and hacking their sticks
out of tree branches.


The local sports heroes in Montreal at this time were the nine members of a local amateur hockey team who had just won a silver cup as the champions of the five-team Canadian Amateur Hockey Association. The Patrick boys emulated their new-found heroes, rushing across the ice after the first big freeze to a small island and hacking their sticks out of tree branches. Lester Patrick said later that they were "like crooked shillelaghs." They had no real puck, and would use a tin can or block of wood in its place. "The game itself was just straight shinny all the time," Lester remembered.(6)

Both Patricks evolved into fine hockey players. Lester eventually attended McGill University in Montreal, where he starred on both the hockey and basketball teams. The talented freshman was even offered a tryout with the defending Stanley Cup champion Montreal Shamrocks, but declined, hoping to stay in college. But Lester showed more interest in sports than in his studies, and one year later left McGill to work for his father. After only one year as a branch office manager, Lester Patrick began playing hockey with a Brandon, Manitoba team. The team won its league, and then challenged the Ottawa Silver Seven, the current Cup holders, for the title. Although the Brandon team was soundly crushed, Patrick played well enough to garner praise from the Ottawa press.

In fact, Lester had played so well that, in 1906, he signed on to play with his hometown Montreal Wanderers, who went on to win the Cup. It was the first of five that Lester Patrick would win.

Frank Patrick, the younger of the two, followed his brother to McGill. Unlike Lester, however, he did graduate. He then went to work in several of his father's logging camps, playing in a senior hockey league on the frontier of British Columbia. In 1909, he joined an Ontario team, the Renfrew Millionaires, at a salary of $2,000 for twelve games. Lester also signed on with Renfrew, at $3,000.(7)

Those sums, outrageous for the time, were not the only huge salaries dished out by Renfrew owner M.J. O'Brien in his quest for a Stanley Cup winner: he also signed a relatively unknown player named Fred Taylor for the unbelievable price of $5,250, for a twelve game schedule. By comparison, Ty Cobb, the new baseball sensation who was universally hailed as the greatest player of the age, had signed a contract worth $6,500 per year for two seasons. With 154 games in the baseball season, Cobb's salary worked out to $45 per game. Taylor, on the other hand, took home $450 per game.(8)

These salary commitments proved hard to meet. The Renfrew club lasted only until 1911, as increasing financial losses piled up. The Patricks looked to the west coast of Canada, with the idea of starting a new professional league, complete with high-tech, indoor, artificial ice rinks.

RIVAL LEAGUES

By 1910, there were two major leagues in Canada operating in competition with each other. The Canadian Hockey Association listed teams in Ottawa, Quebec, and three in Montreal--the Shamrocks, the Nationals, and All-Montreal. The National Hockey Association, or NHA (the forerunner of today's National Hockey League), had teams in Cobalt, Haileybury, Renfrew, plus two Montreal teams--the Wanderers and the Canadiens. A salary war, begun with the signing of the Patricks and Taylor, had nearly destroyed both leagues. The two leagues now merged under the banner of the new seven team NHA, consisting of Renfrew, Cobalt, Haileybury, Ottawa, and the Montreal Shamrocks, Wanderers, and Canadiens. The newly formed league switched from seven-man hockey to the six-man game, eliminating what was called the rover position.

But in 1912, another league, organized on the west coast, entered the picture, preserving the seven-man format and challenging the NHA for the title of the preeminent league in Canada.

Joe Patrick, the family patriarch, had sold his logging business, and the entire family packed up and moved to Victoria, British Columbia, to start up the fledgling league known as the Pacific Coast Hockey Association, or PCHA.

The Patricks' plans called for teams in Victoria, Vancouver, and New Westminster. Frank would operate the team in Vancouver, and Lester would head the Victoria franchise. Calgary and Edmonton would be invited to join the league. The new entrepreneurs set the opening date for January, 1912.

As if the formation and ownership of the teams were not enough, the Patricks also decided to own and operate their own arenas. The Victoria Arena was built at a cost of $110,000, with a seating capacity of four thousand. The arena opened on Christmas Day, 1912, and was the first artificial ice rink in Canada.(9)

Even more imposing was the Vancouver Arena, which opened just three days later. At a cost of $210,000, the behemoth structure was the largest artificial ice surface in the world, and could hold 10,500 spectators--more than ten percent of the urban population of the Vancouver area. The building also included plans for a swimming pool, and four additional sheets of ice for curling matches. Beneath the ice surface, an underground area contained the world's largest refrigeration plant and ice-making machine.(10)


The behemoth structure was the largest
artificial ice surface in the world,
and could hold 10,500 spectators.


But putting the teams into huge, modern buildings was not enough to insure the success of the new league. Quality players were needed to draw fans to the arenas, and the Patricks alone would not spark enough interest to make the gamble pay off.

Of the twenty-three players that had signed on to play in the new league, sixteen had been recruited from the NHA. Four players from the Montreal Wanderers, including highly regarded defenseman Ernie "Moose" Johnson, signed on to wear the black and orange sweater of the New Westminster Royals. Others included Bobby Rowe and Tommy Dunderdale in the red, white, and blue of the Victoria Senators, whose name would be changed to the Aristocrats the next year.

Vancouver reaped the most benefit from the raid on the NHA players, with Henry Harris, Tom Phillips--who was regarded in both leagues as the game's finest winger--and a remarkable young scorer from the Montreal Canadiens named Edouard "Newsy" Lalonde. Strangely, Lalonde and Frank Patrick had once engaged in a bloody stick-swinging incident during a Stanley Cup match in 1910 when Frank played for the Renfrew Millionaires.(11)

Despite the big-name talent pervading the league, the teams did not attract many fans that first year. The Vancouver Millionaires drew more than four thousand spectators for their opening game against New Westminster, but never approached filling the mammoth arena for the remainder of the season. The Victoria Senators drew respectable crowds, while the New Westminster Royals still did not have a home arena and rented the Vancouver Arena for their home games.

The Patricks knew that if their new league was going to be a success, they had to pack the arenas every night. They needed more than just recognizable players for their league; they needed a marquee name which would tantalize even those who cared nothing about the game. They needed a superstar. They needed a Cyclone.

Ever since Fred Taylor signed on with the Renfrew club for a huge salary, he had become the biggest draw in the game. Dubbed "Cyclone" by the press for his incredible speed on the ice, Taylor blossomed into the best player in the game, leading the 1908 and 1909 Ottawa clubs to the Stanley Cup. The Patrick brothers knew that the only way they would attract people to their games was to have Taylor playing on a PCHA team.

Frank Patrick had tried to entice Taylor away from the NHA from the beginning, without success. As early as January, 1912, Frank sent a telegram to Taylor that stated:

Dear Fred:
Having a wonderful time. Wish you were here.
Frank.(12)

But Taylor remained in the East for that first PCHA season. By the league's second year of operation, however, "Cyclone" was ready to make the jump. Armed with the game's greatest gate attraction, the upstart PCHA was ready to challenge the Easterners for hockey supremacy.

While Vancouver welcomed its new star, Newsy Lalonde headed home to the NHA. There, he rejoined the Canadiens. And while his brief stint as a PCHA player came to an end, his new career as a superstar began, a career that would eventually see him return to the West as an opponent.

Despite Taylor's presence in the Vancouver lineup, the Victoria Aristocrats won the league in 1913, and their manager, Lester Patrick, challenged the defending Stanley Cup holders, the Quebec Bulldogs, to a series. Lester made one mistake in issuing the challenge: he did not receive official sanction from the Stanley Cup Commission. That oversight proved crucial after the Aristocrats destroyed the Bulldogs in the series. Lester's team received no official recognition for the victory and, more importantly, received no Stanley Cup.(13)

The 1914-1915 season brought more changes to the league. The New Westminster franchise, doing badly at the gate, disbanded. Most of the players moved to the new Portland team--the Rosebuds--and became members of the first professional hockey team based in the United States. In addition to the new franchise, the league had formalized an agreement with the NHA regarding a playoff series between the two league champions for the Stanley Cup, and Vancouver capitalized on that arrangement to win the prize. Led by Cyclone Taylor and Frank Patrick, the Millionaires defeated Ottawa in the first Stanley Cup final series to be played in the West.(14)

SKILL, DARING, AND DAZZLING SPEED

Still more changes were in store for the 1915-1916 season. At the annual PCHA officers meeting, held on October 12, the league allowed a new team, located in Seattle, into the fold. Pete Muldoon, the current manager of the Portland Rosebuds, would head the team.

Getting into the league was one thing, getting quality players still another. Muldoon had hoped to raid the Victoria lineup, aware that Lester Patrick was having financial difficulty and might have to disband the team. Lester put it to the Victoria fans, who voted overwhelmingly to keep the team.(15) Muldoon needed to search elsewhere for his players, eventually raiding a Toronto team that two years earlier had won the Stanley Cup.


The Ice Arena, opened on November 12, 1915,
with a crowd of 2,500 spectators attending the ceremonies.


Jumping from the Toronto Blue Shirts to join the Seattle Metropolitans were defensemen Harold Cameron and Ed Carpenter; goaltender Harold "Happy" Holmes; forward Jack Walker; and most importantly, two players who would become the most crucial to the Mets' success, forwards Frank Foyston and Carol "Cully" Wilson. All except Cameron remained on the team the following year as the Mets battled for the Stanley Cup.(16)

With most of their lineup in place, the Seattle Metropolitans set about preparing themselves for their inaugural season. A new facility, the Ice Arena, opened on November 12, 1915, with a crowd of 2,500 spectators attending the opening ceremonies. Nearly eight hundred of those actually donned skates to try out the new rink. After two hours of public skating, the skaters were cleared from the ice to make way for an exhibition:

As an opener, Pete Muldoon, manager of the Arena, and Miss Margot Kirkreith of Portland, skated through intricate glides of fancy dances to the music of Wagner's orchestra...Carl Waltenberg, a Russian...who performed for years in the Berlin Ice Palace, followed with a clever exhibition of fancy skating. A real treat of the evening was the performance of James J. Bourke, reputed to be 'the most accomplished figure skater in America,' who went through a series of intricate whirls, speed strokes, sudden stops, figure cutting and all around fancy skating...(17)

Seattle sports fans were instantly curious about the new hockey team. Newspaper ads declared, "No one who is fond of good, clean, fast sport should fail to see the opening match...Hockey is the FASTEST AND MOST SPECTACULAR GAME IN THE WORLD."(18) Local sports writers were as curious as the public, not having been exposed to the game before. E.R. Hughes, who wrote a column called "Hughes Hugh in Sports" for the Seattle Times, devoted almost two full columns to the new sport. "The average man on skates has his troubles to keep from falling," he wrote, "but these speed boys simply cannot fall down. They skate nearly as fast backward as they do forward; they scoot about on one foot, stop dead when going at full speed, and with a whirl start back the other way in a bewildering manner."

Clearly enthralled by the game, Hughes went on to describe the rules as best he understood them. He marveled at the pace of the game and the conditioning of its participants. "It is action, action, action all the time from the time the puck is faced off...There isn't a doubt in the world but that hockey will make a tremendous hit in Seattle, for anyone who likes to see skill and daring coupled with dazzling speed, is sure to take kindly to the game."(19)

The sport seemed to be taking hold well, despite the fact that the team had not even played a game. Fans swamped manager Pete Muldoon with ticket requests for the opening game. Curious spectators piled into the Arena to watch the team practice, including more than fifty women.(20)

The curiosity paid off on opening night with a sell-out crowd of more than 2,500 paying the $1 admission to watch the Mets, clad in gaudy crimson, green, and white uniforms, beat Victoria 3-2.(21) The Mets finished the season at a respectable 9-9, good enough to brighten their hopes for the next year.

That season, Portland won the league title and became the first U.S. team to compete for the Cup. Because of the agreement signed by both the PCHA and the NHA, Portland traveled to Montreal for the series. The long train ride likely led to their downfall, as they dropped the best-of-five series, 3-2 to Newsy Lalonde and the Montreal Canadiens.(22) In losing the final game by the narrow score of 2-1, Portland missed being the first American city to win the Cup. That honor fell to the Seattle Metropolitans the following season.

THE 1917 SEASON

The start of the 1916-1917 PCHA season brought dramatic changes to the fledgling league. The Victoria Aristocrats found themselves homeless after the Canadian government commandeered the Victoria Arena for military purposes. The team had done badly at the gate anyway. So Lester Patrick moved them to Spokane. Vancouver was now the only Canadian representative in a league where 99% of the players were from Canada.

Patrick built a new arena--patterned after the Victoria Arena--at the corner of Sinto and Cannon, on the north side of the Spokane River. At a cost of $100,000 in 1916 dollars, the new rink was an expensive proposition. Construction began on August 18, and the completed facility opened on October 31, with a capacity of four thousand.

At first, the residents of Spokane took to the new building with a combination of wonder and enthusiasm. Opening night featured "a remarkable exhibition of figure skating on stilts," performed by Pete Muldoon, coach and manager of the Seattle Metropolitans. Nearly eight hundred skaters and spectators marveled at the artificial ice surface, and the local paper reported that "the scene was one of animation and gaiety."(23)

Less than one week later, the paper proclaimed proudly, "Ice skating has come to stay," and reported that skating had become a "rage," with hundreds of people flocking to the new rink every day. Skating quickly evolved into a trendy new social activity among the citizenry of Spokane, but the game of ice hockey had yet to be played. It remained to be seen whether the city would appreciate the sport more than those in Victoria.(24)

Lester Patrick did nothing to help his team's chances for success when he settled on the new nickname for his team. With new yellow and purple uniforms, Lester overheard a Spokane youth comment that an appropriate nickname for the team might be the "Canaries." He liked the new name, much to the chagrin of the local newspaper, which wrote, "Henceforth the Spokane hockey players will be handicapped by being called 'Canaries'." The paper went on to add, almost apologetically, "this does not mean that patrons of the ice sport should expect harmony and hockey for the price of one admission, as the two of them run far apart. There are no Scottis or Carusos on the Spokane team."(25)

On the heels of Portland's near victory over the Montreal Canadiens in the Stanley Cup series, expectations grew for Seattle's chances in the 1916-1917 season. The Rosebuds learned early in the fall of 1916 that their star player, Eddie Oatman, had enlisted in the Canadian armed forces and would not be playing in the upcoming season. Oatman, Portland's captain, had been given much of the credit for his team's remarkable success the previous year, and his loss leveled the playing field between the PCHA teams.(26)

With the arrival of a new season came the annual amendments to league rules. One new rule allowed the goalie to drop to his knees or even lie down to stop the puck, where previously he had to remain standing. Each team would play twelve home games, four against every other team instead of the usual three, which meant a longer season and more ticket revenue. The season was scheduled to open on Friday, December 1, with the Spokane Canaries traveling to Portland to take on the defending champion Rosebuds. The Seattle Metropolitans were due to begin play the next night against the Millionaires in Vancouver.(27) Seattle would play at home against Portland three nights later.

The Metropolitans, who finished their inaugural season a respectable 9-9, had good reason to be hopeful. Pete Muldoon, manager and coach of the team, announced in mid-November that most of his players would return to the fold with the exception of two, and Muldoon felt confidant his team was the one to beat: "It's too early to hazard a guess as to who will cop off the championship and figure in the World's Series next spring, but the little old team that beats Seattle will be the pennant winners."(28)

With Eddie Oatman gone, most hockey followers gave the Vancouver Millionaires the best chance to win the league title. Even Muldoon conceded that they would be "very strong," and would offer the stiffest competition for the Mets. Although the Millionaires also lost one of their best players from the previous season, a defenseman named Arthur Duncan, they had secured the services of Dr. Gordie Roberts, "an honest-to-goodness physician," who had been playing in the NHA after a brief stint working as an assistant at the New Westminster Insane Asylum. For five years, Roberts was rated among the top wings in the Eastern league, and his presence more than made up for the loss of Duncan.(29) Clearly Vancouver, under the guidance of manager-captain-coach Frank Patrick and superstar Cyclone Taylor, would be the favorite.

Opening night provided several surprises, including the first-ever win for the Spokane Canaries as they beat the current champion Portland Rosebuds 5-4. The Vancouver septet lived up to their early billing in their opening game when they "disposed of Seattle in easy fashion," by a score of 6-2.(30) Muldoon blamed the loss on the overconfidence of his players, and promised a better effort at their home opener against Portland.

Twenty-five hundred people turned out for the match and did not have much to cheer about until the closing minutes of the game. Seattle fell behind early when Rosebud Henry "Smokey" Harris netted a goal only five minutes into the game. A little over ten minutes later, Harris again beat the Seattle goaltender, Hap Holmes. Portland took a 2-0 lead into the first period intermission.

The Mets fared better in the second period, getting on the board with a goal from centerman Bernie Morris after nearly twelve minutes of scoreless play. In the third period, Cully Wilson tied the game just one minute and forty-five seconds after the puck was dropped. However, Seattle did not have much time to celebrate, as fifteen seconds later, Smokey Harris completed his hat trick and gave Portland the lead. The teams played to a standstill for the next twelve minutes, with Seattle fans losing hope as the clock passed the fifteen minute mark. One sports writer, caught up in the tension of the game, wrote:

Although warfare in the Pacific Coast Hockey Association is always waged bitterly, seldom are the lovers of the puck-game furnished with such soul-stirring excitement as in last night's fray. And never before did the Seattle fans have more occasion to rejoice after visualizing their heroes being dragged through the barnacled channels of defeat for a second time.

With less than five minutes to play, and Seattle in danger of losing its second straight game, Cully Wilson scored an unassisted goal, knotting the score at three. The teams battled through the end of regulation time, and referee Fred (Mickey) Ion called for a "sudden-death' overtime period. The teams would continue playing until someone scored a goal.

After a rough eleven minutes that witnessed the ejection of Cully Wilson of the Mets and Tommy Dunderdale of the Rosebuds, Wilson's substitute, James Riley, ended the game with a shot through the legs of Portland goaltender Tom Murray. That game would prove to be important down the stretch as the Mets battled the Millionaires for PCHA supremacy.

Seattle's bliss after their first victory of the season was short lived. The Mets lost their next two games, one to Portland just three days later. They lost to Vancouver in overtime, 4-3, and four games into the season found themselves tied for last place with the Rosebuds. Despite the team's lack of success, the Seattle fans continued to support the Mets by filling out the Arena for every home game. "Pete Muldoon's puck chasers may lose every game they play this season," one reporter wrote after their second straight loss, "but if they continue to offer the brand of hockey they dished up at The Arena last night...Seattle fans will forgive them."(31)

With three wins and only one loss, the Spokane Canaries were the surprise of the league. Vancouver boasted the same mark, with Portland and Seattle at 1-3. Spokane's successful beginning lasted only through the first month of the season. On December 30, the Mets defeated Vancouver 7-4, and moved into a first place tie with the Millionaires. By January 4, 1917, the Metropolitans had climbed over the .500 mark for the first time that season with a 5-4 record.(32)

On January 12, the Mets again battled arch-rival Vancouver, crushing the Millionaires by the score of 12-3, in one of the most lopsided games of the season. "The Seattle Metropolitans last night greased the skids and sent the Vancouver Millionaires shooting down the ways," declared the local press, calling the outcome "the most disastrous walloping of the season." With that win, Seattle finished the first half of the season 7-5; or, as manager Pete Muldoon put it, "over the hump two games to the good."(33) Seattle was helped immensely by the absence from the Vancouver lineup of "Cyclone" Taylor, who had been out since December with appendicitis.

Spokane held its grip on second place with a 6-5 record, but the curtain soon fell on Lester Patrick's Canaries. Spokane won only one of its next five games, falling into third place behind Vancouver and being eliminated from contention in early February.


By March 1, the Mets and Millionaires were in
a virtual dead heat for the championship.


Vancouver, in the meantime, picked up momentum and by February 4, remained the only team capable of catching the fiery Metropolitans.(34) By March 1, the Mets and Millionaires were in a virtual dead heat for the championship. Seattle, with a 15-8 record, had one game against Portland remaining on its schedule. Vancouver, at 13-9, had two games still to play, both against the weak Spokane Canaries. In order to force a playoff between the Millionaires and the Mets, Frank Patrick would need two victories against his brother Lester, and a great effort from Portland on their home ice against Seattle.

By now, the Spokane Canaries were doing so poorly at the gate that all of their remaining games were scheduled in their opponents' buildings. This, combined with the fact that Seattle had only beaten the Rosebuds once in two years at the Portland Arena, gave the Seattle fans reason to be nervous before the game. Vancouver did its part by skating circles around the Canaries, winning its next to last game 11-5, applying even greater pressure to Pete Muldoon's Metropolitans.

Despite their trepidation about the contest, Seattle fans packed into special railway cars attached to a commuter train called the "Shasta Limited," and made the trip to Portland to watch their team either win the title outright, or face the prospect of a playoff with perhaps the strongest team in the league. More than fifty of the staunchest Seattle supporters made the trip to the Rose City.(35) Manager Pete Muldoon recognized the importance of the game, and made a bold prediction to the Seattle sports press just before boarding the train:

Seattle fans have seen their last hockey game until we meet the National Association winner in the series for the world's championship. We are coming back from Portland with the old title sewed up and there will be no tie to play off with the Millionaires. We are in the best shape possible for the game and will have no alibis. One reason we will have no alibis is because we will not need any. We are going to trim Portland and win the flag.(36)

() The game itself lived up to expectations. Described as a "torrid session," it kept the more than four thousand fans at a fever pitch.(37) Portland opened the scoring eighteen minutes into the game and took the 1-0 lead into the first period break. Seattle stormed back in the second, on goals by Bernie Morris and Frank Foyston. Portland tallied a goal late in the period, sending the teams off for the second break knotted at 2-2.


Frank Foyston stated that the Mets could defeat Vancouver
"any day they started, for money, marbles, or rusty nails."


In the end, the Mets' relentless attack proved too much for the out-gunned Rosebuds. Foyston scored early in the third period to give Seattle the lead for good. Bernie Morris struck again, mid-way through the period, giving the visitors a two-goal lead. Portland closed the gap late in the game on a goal from Tommy Dunderdale, but it was not enough to overcome the Seattle lead. The Mets won the game and clinched the PCHA pennant with a 4-3 victory.(38) The upstart Seattle team was now prepared to face the NHA champions, for the right to claim the Cup.

Frank Patrick, upon hearing the news, canceled the Millionaires' last game against Spokane. With nothing on the line, he feared a lack of interest among the Vancouver fans. Patrick was hurt financially by the cancellation of the game, but perhaps hurt more by his team's failure to win the title. Patrick spoke openly of his disappointment, and firmly maintained that the Millionaires were the better team.(39)

Hoping to recoup some lost money, as well as pride, Patrick proposed a two-game series between the Mets and the Millionaires, strictly for entertainment, while Seattle awaited word about its Stanley Cup opponent. Muldoon accepted the challenge as eagerly "as a panhandler accepts a dime," wrote one reporter. Frank Foyston stated that the Mets could defeat Vancouver "any day they started, for money, marbles, or rusty nails."(40)

The brash talk from Vancouver manager Frank Patrick proved to be no idle boast. The Millionaires won the first game 6-4, led by Fred Taylor's two goals. The Seattle team played uninspired hockey, and it showed for most of the game. Vancouver, on the other hand, showed just how powerful a motivator pride can be.


The Canadiens, nicknamed the "Flying Frenchmen,"
would head to Seattle to defend the Cup,
in a five game series.


In the second game, Vancouver again triumphed, 5-3. Muldoon admitted his players did not exert themselves to the fullest, not wanting to risk an injury before the start of the Stanley Cup games.(41) Muldoon was probably correct in his analysis, as Seattle had beaten Vancouver handily during the regular season. But again, most of those victories occurred with Cyclone Taylor absent from the Vancouver lineup. There is little doubt that, had Taylor played just a few more games, Vancouver would have notched one more win, giving the Millionaires a tie for the title and forcing a playoff with Seattle.

However justified Frank Patrick might have been in his pronouncement of superiority, Pete Muldoon's Metropolitans had won the right to take on the NHA champion for the Cup during the season, and the results of the post-season challenge did not change that fact. The Mets eagerly awaited the Eastern champion, still to be determined in the NHA post-season playoffs.

FUTILE DEFENSE

The NHA playoff pitted the defending Cup holders and first-half champion Montreal Canadiens against the second- half champion Ottawa Senators. The predominantly French-speaking Canadiens won the first game of the two game, total-goals series by the score of 5-2. They managed to stay close enough to the Senators in the second game--losing 4-2--to win the series, 7-6.(42) The Canadiens, nicknamed the "Flying Frenchmen," would head to Seattle to defend the Cup, in a five game series.(43) As captain of the Canadiens, Newsy Lalonde headed back to the PCHA, this time as an opponent.

With an opponent finally set, the city of Seattle began to buzz with talk of the World Series of Hockey. Arena manager Curtis Lester prepared the building for what he expected would be the biggest crowd ever, and sportswriters from all over the Northwest converged on the city. Special telegraph wires were strung into the Arena, and newspapers all over Canada prepared to print bulletins on the goals as they occurred.(44)

While enthusiasm ran high among the fans, oddsmakers put Seattle's chances of winning the cup at around 50-50. Just before the series was to begin, Mets' defenseman Bobby Rowe injured his shoulder in practice. Without Rowe in the lineup, Seattle's defense was weakened. Roy Rickey, Rowe's replacement, was hailed as a promising prospect, but lacked the experience of Rowe.(45)

Muldoon's players were further disheartened when Seattle sportswriters, unfamiliar with any of the teams in the Eastern league, requested player biographies for the Montreal team. "Statistics taken from the Montreal Herald, giving the individual weight of the Canadiens, indicate that the NHA pennant winners probably are the heaviest hockey team in the world," commented a Seattle Daily Times writer. With an average weight of 179 pounds compared to the Mets' average of 163 pounds, "the Canadiens loom like giants."(46)

Tickets for the first game went on sale at 9 A.M. on March 14, three days before the first game. A crowd gathered hours before the ticket window opened, stretching nearly one block. The seats were sold in a few hours, at which time the Arena management printed standing-room-only vouchers, raising the building's capacity to more than four thousand.

As injured defenseman Bobby Rowe tried to heal in time for the first game, Montreal was delayed on its trip to the West. Due to arrive on March 16, the team stopped and practiced at the Vancouver Arena as Frank Patrick's guests. They arrived late at night on March 16, just one day before the first game was scheduled. Travel-weary and without their skating legs, even the Canadiens' manager expected them to lose the first game. "I do not expect my team to have their feet tonight because of the long trip they have just finished, " said Montreal Manager George Kennedy, just before the first game. "They will be in fighting form by Tuesday, however, and we have not the slightest doubt of the outcome of the series."(47) In addition to fatigue, his team also had to play the first game under the seven player system still used in the West, adding to Seattle's advantages for the first game.

On St. Patrick's Day, 1917, the Canadiens drew first blood in the series, winning the opening game easily. Led by the great goaltending of Georges Vezina, the Montreal team "skimmed over the ice like feathers floating down an airshaft." The aging winger, Didier Pitre, scored four goals for Montreal, all on fifty-foot shots that whizzed past Seattle netminder Hap Holmes "so fast that Holmes could not see them."(48) At 40 years old, Pitre was one of the oldest players in either league. But if his age slowed him down, he didn't show it. In the NHA, he was recognized as having the hardest shot in the league. "Whenever the whirlwind forward for the Frenchmen hooked his stick on the puck, 'Happy' Holmes folded his arms, closed his eyes, and prayed."(49)

When the third period began, Montreal led 5-1, as Seattle tried to mount a counterattack, without the services of Bobby Rowe. Bernie Morris scored his second goal of the night just one minute into the period, which was followed by another from Frank Foyston just minutes later. But the come-back fell short two minutes later, as Pitre again blasted one by Happy Holmes, making the score 6-3. Bernie Morris got his hat-trick later, but to no avail, as the Canadiens held on to take the first game, 8-4.(50) In addition to the victory, Newsy Lalonde also managed to make some enemies with the Seattle team by taking three penalties for a total of nine minutes.

Montreal was elated by the victory. The Mets, on the other hand, seemed to take the loss in stride, saying they still intended to win the series. But the loss must have weighed as heavily on Pete Muldoon as it did on the Seattle sportswriters: "When the speed boys from the East got through with the home lads you could only recognize them by the 'S' on their uniforms," quipped Royal Brougham in the Post-Intelligencer. "In the language of the street they 'blew'...The goal keeper leaked like a fork," he continued, "...altogether it was a sad night."(51) Muldoon vowed his team would be prepared for the next meeting.

The teams met for game two just three nights later. This time, the match would be played under the NHA six-man system. Oddsmakers, or "dopesters" as they were called by the press, gave the edge to the Canadiens on the basis of their showing in the first contest and Seattle's unfamiliarity with the six player game. Muldoon was outwardly confidant, if inwardly troubled, by his team's performance in the previous match. "My team got all the bad hockey out of its system Saturday night," he told reporters.(52) "Five of my men were on the team which beat the Canadiens out of the NHA pennant in 1914," he added. "Foyston, Walker, Carpenter, Wilson, and Holmes beat the Frenchmen then and they ought to be able to do it again."(53)

Happy Homes echoed the sentiments of his boss. Realizing that his poor play was partially responsible for the defeat, Holmes promised to "show up those frog-eaters Tuesday night if he ever showed up a team in his life."(54) Despite the outward confidence of the Seattle players, none of them would have predicted the outcome of the crucial second game.

Seattle came out of the locker room flying. Ten minutes into the game, Bernie Morris scored his fourth goal of the series, giving the Mets their first lead against the Canadiens. Then, with Newsy Lalonde of Montreal out for roughing, Cully Wilson scored a power-play goal on a pass from Jack Walker, giving Seattle a two-goal lead. The second period featured more of the same, with Bernie Morris again putting the puck behind Georges Vezina. Frank Foyston then added another, giving Seattle a four goal edge to begin the third period. Captain Foyston then added two more in the third, closing out the Mets' scoring. Tommy Smith scored for Montreal with less than a minute remaining to spoil Holmes' shutout.

Besides the lopsided 6-1 score, the game provided excitement for the boxing enthusiasts. "The fight fan was in his glory," wrote Royal Brougham. "There were not any eight-ounce gloves or padded rings, but there was plenty of mixing just the same." Once again, it was Montreal who received the bulk of the penalties, leading one columnist to crack, "The brand of hockey those lads play is as clean as the bottom of a parrot's cage. Tuesday's contest wasn't a game, it was a crime."(55) The controversy about the fighting, however, did not matter to the Metropolitans. They had tied the series, and earned a measure of respect from the Canadiens.


"Last night Holmes was stopping them
with everything from his toe to his eyebrow,
fending off shots from every angle
and guarding his goal like Horatius watched the bridge."


Happy Holmes was especially pleased, having redeemed himself in front of his fans. "If 'Happy' had nailed a six-foot fence across his nets the Montreal forwards couldn't have had any more trouble slipping the puck through for scores," Brougham said.(56) The Seattle Times wrote, "Last night Holmes was stopping them with everything from his toe to his eyebrow, fending off shots from every angle and guarding his goal like Horatius watched the bridge."(57) Then, as now, a player's popularity was the direct result of his last performance.

By "upsetting the dope," Seattle managed to cause a switch in the wagering and put the pressure back on the shoulders of the defending Cup champions. Believing the loss resulted from his players having "too many parties," Montreal Manager George Kennedy forced his team to buckle down. "No more pleasure from now on, " he told the press. "The boys have found out that they haven't any walk-away and they are going to knuckle down to business now."(58)

The third game, on March 23, proved not only to be the most important contest of the series, but the most controversial as well. Led once again by the amazing scoring touch of Bernie Morris, the Mets moved to within one game of taking home the Stanley Cup. Morris opened the first period with the first of his three goals on the night. The Canadiens held Seattle scoreless in the second to preserve their hopes of equalizing the score in the third. But Frank Foyston netted his fifth goal of the series, and Morris followed with two goals in two minutes to seal the victory. Tommy Smith again spoiled the shutout with a Montreal goal in the last minute.

But the real fireworks began after the game. George Kennedy filed a formal protest following the match, claiming that when his best defenseman, Harry Mummery, was given a ten-minute penalty the Canadiens, had no replacement for him. The Montreal reserves were all either serving penalties or actively playing on the ice. Seattle scored all three of its third period goals while Mummery served his penalty. Kennedy formally submitted his protest to league president Frank Patrick the following day. The surprise move by the Montreal manager made him "about as popular as a worm in a chestnut" with Seattle fans.(59)

On March 25, just one day before the scheduled fourth game, Frank Patrick handed down his decision regarding the protest. After consulting with NHA president Frank Robinson, Patrick ruled against the protest, validating the results of the game. "I do not think Montreal was deprived of Friday's game by any action of the officials," Frank said in a written statement to the press. "And for that reason I cannot allow the protest. The Seattle players were in the lead all the way, and they got none the worst of the refereeing."(60)

Despite the near setback, Seattle fans were confidant that their team would capture the Cup in the next game. "Seattle fans are unable to see how the Canadiens can win from the dashing Metros," wrote reporters. "In the last two games the Seattle puck-chasers have so far outplayed the Canadiens that nothing but a drastic reversal of form by the Mets or a wonderful revival of form by the Canadiens ... would make it possible for the Montreal men to win."(61)

By the start of the fourth game, all of the "dope" was with Seattle. The game would be played under NHA rules (six players), but the Mets seemed to have no trouble adapting to the different style, as they had demonstrated in the second game. They had dominated the Canadiens since getting over their opening-night jitters, outclassing the Frenchmen at every turn. Mike Jay, a Vancouver Sun sports reporter, declared that he would like to be "in at the death Monday." The Seattle players were "filled to overflowing with confidence and pep," sure that the Cup would be theirs following the game.(62)

GROUNDING THE FLYING FRENCHMEN

At precisely 8:30 P.M. on Monday, March 26, referee Mickey Ion dropped the puck for the opening face-off of the fourth game between the opposing centers, Bernie Morris for the Mets and Newsy Lalonde for the Canadiens. Less than two minutes later, in front of the largest crowd to ever witness a hockey game in Seattle, Morris bulged the twine behind Georges Vezina with an unassisted goal. That goal held up through the period, which ended with Seattle nursing a 1-0 lead.

The second period began with the Mets becoming more aggressive. A Frank Foyston shot right after the face-off just missed the net. Montreal forward Jack Laviolette, after leading a brilliant rush, crumpled to the ice following a check from Mets defenseman Ed Carpenter. He returned later in the game, but the tone had been set: the Metropolitans would not lose this game.

Eight minutes into the second stanza, Foyston and Morris carried the puck into the Montreal zone on a two-on-one. Foyston feathered a pass to Morris who then slipped it by Vezina for a 2-0 lead. One minute later, Foyston tallied one of his own, unassisted, for a three-goal lead. Now, the Seattle players had found their stride, and the floodgates were about to open, with Bernie Morris leading the deluge.

Roy Rickey, the young Seattle defenseman, shot down the ice with Morris close behind. He held the puck as Morris positioned himself in front of the net, then floated a pass right on Bernie's stick. "The tricky Morris," wrote a sportswriter, "shot with ridiculous ease."(63) Seattle headed into the second intermission with a comfortable 4-0 lead.

The third period started as badly for the Montreal Canadiens as the second period had ended. First, as George Kennedy walked across the ice to his bench, the Seattle fans gave the Montreal manager quite a good-natured heckling. Soon after the puck was dropped, Kennedy's spirits sank even further. Again the source was Bernie Morris, picking up his fourth goal of the game a little more than one minute after the face-off. At this point, the Arena fans erupted, sensing the demise of the Canadiens. The crowd had scarcely quieted down when Morris struck again, this time with an assist to Jack Walker.

The fans were in an uproar, cheering and stomping their feet until the iron girders in the Arena rattled from the vibration.(64) All the Montreal Canadiens could do was wait for the clock to run out in the game, and their reign as Stanley Cup Champions. Foyston scored again, making it 7-0. Didier Pitre countered for the Canadiens, but it was too late. Jack Walker added one more late for the soon-to-be champion Seattle team, and the amazing Bernie Morris put away his sixth goal of the game to close it out. As the game ended, Seattle had walloped Montreal, 9-1.

The Seattle fans went berserk. "The lexicon of sport," wrote the Seattle Daily Times, "does not contain language adequate to describe the fervor of the fans."(65) But if the Seattle faithful were expecting to catch a glimpse of the fabled Stanley Cup, they were disappointed. Not only had the Montreal Canadiens left the chalice at home, but the Mets would have to put up a $500 bond before the NHA would relinquish it to their possession. It would be another three months before any of the Seattle players could hold the Cup aloft as world champions.

Even though the physical symbol of their victory was missing for a short time, the players took pride in the fact that they had done what no other U.S. team had ever done--etched their name on the base of the Stanley Cup.(66)

With their victory over Montreal, Seattle sports fans had their first-ever big-league, professional sports championship. It would be sixty-two years before the Seattle Supersonics of the National Basketball Association would give them another. Mets fans showed their appreciation by presenting the Seattle players with trophies purchased with donations.

Seattle sports writers wasted no time before gloating about the victory. "The Mets went through the invaders' defense like a tornado on wheels in huckleberry time," wrote one columnist. "They couldn't have played better if they cheated." The Canadiens' prized Stanley Cup had "gone where the woodbind twineth and the grass is ever green, and Lalonde and his gladiators' chests have receeded and resumed their normal position on their backs." The reporter concluded with a nod to the more than sixteen thousand fans who witnessed the four games, and exclaimed, "Among Monday's four thousand spectators were the Montreal players."(67)

THE LAST HURRAH

The Seattle Metropolitans never again won the Stanley Cup. Two years after their victory, however, they again hosted the Montreal Canadiens, now of the newly formed National Hockey League, in the 1919 finals. With the series tied at two games apiece, a flu epidemic forced the postponement of the fifth and deciding game. Several key players on both sides were afflicted, and one--Canadien stalwart "Bad" Joe Hall--eventually died in a Seattle hospital. The fifth game was never played, marking the only time since the Cup's introduction that it has not been awarded.(68)

Seattle had one last shot at the Cup in 1920, when they traveled to Ottawa to meet the Senators. They lost the series in five games, getting blown out in the fifth game by the score of 6-1.

The next season, the Mets fell off the pace early and never recovered. Attendance began to decline as interest in the mediocre team lagged. Instead of playing before packed houses, as they had in 1917, Seattle barely drew a thousand fans per game. By the start of the 1924-25 season, the team was in financial trouble, and the Arena owners decided not to renew the team's lease, opting instead to tear down the building and erect a parking garage. For $10,000, the landlords bought out the remaining year on the lease, and the Seattle Metropolitans ceased to exist. With a few swings of the wrecking ball, the building that had once housed the first-ever American Stanley Cup championship crumbled to the ground.(69)

That same year, the PCHA merged with the Western Canada League to form the Western Canada Hockey League (WCHL), which competed for the Stanley Cup against the National Hockey League (NHL) for the last time . It was a memorable swan song for Lester Patrick as his Victoria Cougars (the remnants of the infamous Spokane Canaries) defeated the Montreal Canadiens, three games to one.

Another first that year was the inclusion of the first American-based NHL team, the Boston Bruins. The New York Rangers entered the league in 1926 and, again under the management of Lester Patrick, won the Stanley Cup the following year. They became the first American NHL team to win the prize, completing the circle begun by the Mets.

Most of the players from the 1917 Seattle squad jumped to other teams following the demise of the Mets. Frank Foyston, the captain, signed on with the Victoria, played for two seasons, then joined the Detroit Cougars in the NHL. He was elected to the Hockey Hall of Fame in April, 1958.(70)

Bernie Morris, the sensational forward who scored six goals in the fourth game, went to Calgary of the WCHL for one year, then joined the Boston Bruins for their inaugural season.

Cully Wilson played for Toronto the season after the championship and was banned from the PCHA for his rough play. He returned, however, in 1923 to play for Calgary before moving to the newly-formed Chicago Blackhawks of the NHL in 1926.

Hap Holmes, the Met goaltender, left Seattle after the victory and played a season and a half in Toronto. He returned to the Mets at the end of the 1918-19 season, then moved to Vancouver for the 1920-21 season. After a two-year retirement, he played for the Victoria Cougars until 1926, then with the Detroit Cougars.

Pete Muldoon, the manager and coach, stayed with the team until its demise. Out of the game for two years, he was hired by the Chicago Blackhawks to coach the new club in 1926. The Hawks did admirably well in their first season, scoring the most goals in the NHL. Unfortunately, they also allowed the most. Muldoon was fired at the start of the 1927 season, and was so incensed at team owner Fred McLaughlin that he stormed out of the office and screamed, "You'll see. I'll make sure you never win an NHL title."(71 ) Blackhawk fans were haunted by "Muldoon's Curse" for the next thirty-five years until Chicago finally won the Cup in 1962.

Both Patrick brothers remained active in the game. Lester coached and managed the New York Rangers, and stayed with that team until 1946. He was elected to the Hall of Fame in 1945. Frank Patrick continued on the west coast, becoming president of the Pacific Coast League, a minor circuit that supplied the NHL with new talent. In 1934, he accepted an offer to coach the Boston Bruins, a position he held until 1936, and in 1940 he became general manager of the Montreal Canadiens. He was elected to the Hall of Fame in the "builder" category in 1958. Frank died on June 29, 1960--exactly twenty-eight days after Lester.(72)

The Patricks' impact on the sport of hockey continued despite Lester's and Frank's deaths. Lester's grandson, Craig, was an assistant coach behind the bench during the "Miracle on Ice," the U.S. victory over the Soviet Union at Lake Placid during the 1980 Olympics.

NOTES

(1)Stan and Shirley Fischler, Everybody's Hockey Book (New York, 1983), 7.

(2)Zander Hollander and Hal Bock, editors, The Complete Encyclopedia of Ice Hockey (Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1970), 202.

(3)Ibid., 202.

(4)Eric Whitehead, The Patricks: Hockey's Royal Family (Garden City, New York, 1980), 12.

(5)Ibid., 14.

(6)Ibid.,15. "Shinny" is a kind of hockey where the object is to hold onto the puck the longest. There are no goals, players simply control the puck until someone else takes it away from them.

(7 )Ibid., 63.

(8)Eric Whitehead, Cyclone Taylor: A Hockey Legend (Toronto, Ontario, 1977), 106.

(9)Whitehead, The Patricks, 106.

(10)Ibid.,109.

(11)Ibid., 73. Whitehead goes into great detail about the incident, in which the two players were carted off the ice together. According to Whitehead, Frank brought Newsy back to his boarding house after the game and compared gashes over coffee.

(12)Ibid., 110.

(13)Hollander and Bock, Encyclopedia of Ice Hockey, 209, 210.

(14)Stan and Shirley Fischler, Great Book Of Hockey: More Than 100 Years of Fires on Ice (Lincolnwood, Illinois, 1991), 20.

(15)"Four Teams In Hockey League," Seattle Daily Times, October 13, 1915, 17.

(16)"Toronto Team All Come Over," Seattle Daily Times, November 5, 1915, 25.

(17)"Arena Opens with Crowd Of Skaters," Seattle Daily Times, November 13, 1915, 7. Bourke also worked for a sporting goods store in Seattle, attaching ice skates to shoes. He also sold modern skates-with-boots. Most skates cost around $5, with the top of the line models going for $12. Bourke was also an ice skating instructor. An advertisement for his services can be seen in the Seattle Daily Times, November 12, 1915, 20.

(18)Ad for home opener on December 7, Seattle Daily Times, November 27, 1915, 7.

(19)E.R. Hughes, "Hughes Hugh in Sports," Seattle Daily Times, November 30, 1915, 15.

(20)"Hockey Players Work Out Daily," Seattle Daily Times, November 24, 1915, 17.

(21)"Hockey Makes Hit With Seattle Fans," Seattle Daily Times, December 8, 1915, 17.

(22)Stan and Shirley Fischler, Everybody's Hockey Book, 27.

(23)"Ice Skating Rink Opens," Spokesman-Review, November 1, 1916, 13.

(24)"S.A.A.C Hockey Players to Meet," Spokesman-Review, November 5, 1916, S1.

(25)"'Canaries' Adopted as Nickname for the Spokane Hockey Team," Spokesman-Review, November 28, 1916, 16.

(26)"Rosebud Hockey Crowd Suffers," Seattle Daily Times, November 6, 1916, 16. Oatman later signed a contract with the Battalion Team of the NHA, causing a minor rift between the two leagues.

(27)"Hockey To Open Here On Night of December 5," Seattle Daily Times, November 11, 1916, 7.

(28)"Seattle Hockey Team is Intact, Declares Chief," Seattle Sunday Times, November 19, 1916, S2.

(29)"Hockey Men in Stiff Workouts," Seattle Daily Times, November 29, 1916, 14. Duncan eventually returned to Vancouver and competed in several Stanley Cup playoffs during the early '20s, losing them all. He later played for the Detroit Cougars and the Toronto Maple Leafs during the second part of the decade.

(30)"Spokane And Vancouver Open Hockey Season At Ice Arena Tonight," Spokesman-Review, December 5, 1916, 16.

(31)"Vancouver Wins Fast Game From Metropolitans," Seattle Daily Times, December 13, 1916, 18.

(32)Charles L. Coleman, The Trail of the Stanley Cup, 1893-1926 (Toronto; 1966), Vol. I: 319.

(33)"Vancouver Falls Victim To Mets' Attack," Seattle Daily Times, January 13, 1917, 7.

(34)"Seattle Has Safe Lead In Chase For Coast Hockey Championship," Spokesman-Review, February 4, 1917, S2. The Portland Rosebuds, the defending champions, never really got on track during the season, but still managed to get by Spokane in the last couple of games, finishing in third place. The Canaries finished last among the four teams, one game behind the Rosebuds. After January 3, the Canaries won only four of fifteen games.

(35)"Hockey Fans To Invade Portland," Seattle Daily Times, March 1, 1917, 18.

(36)"Hockey Honors To Be Decided," Seattle Daily Times, March 2, 1917, 24.

(37)"Seattle Cinches Hockey Flag In Thrilling Game," Seattle Daily Times, March 3, 1917, 8.

(38) Ibid., 8.

(39)"Rivals For Flag To Meet In Post Season Contests," Seattle Sunday Times, March 4,1917, S1.

(40)Ibid., S1.

(41)"Fight For Hockey Championship To Begin Next Week," Seattle Daily Times, March 10, 1917, 7.

(42)Stan and Shirley Fischler, Everybody's Hockey Book, 35.

(43)"Flying Frenchmen Reach Vancouver; Due Here Tonight," Seattle Daily Times, March 16, 1917, 24. The Canadiens were also called "Les Canadiens," at this time. They would later garner the nickname "Les Habitantes," or simply, The Habs. All of those names are still in use today.

(44)"Tickets at Premium," Post-Intelligencer, March 16, 1917, 9.

(45 )Ibid., 9.

(46)"Giant Eastern Team Outweighs Seattle Septet," Seattle Daily Times, March 13, 1917, 15.

(47)"Mets Will Fight For World's Ice Honors Tonight," Seattle Daily Times, March 17, 1917, 10.

(48)"Canadiens Take First Game Of Series, 8 To 4," Seattle Sunday Times, March 18, 1917, 5.

(49)"Seattle Is Beaten By French Wizards In Opening Battle," Post-Intelligencer, March 18, 1917, 9.

(50)"Canadiens Take First Game Of Series, 8 to 4," 10.

(51)"Seattle Is Beaten By French Wizards In Opening Battle," 9.

(52)"Seattle Hockey Team Is Facing Crucial Test," Seattle Daily Times, March 20, 1917, 15.

(53)"Mets Confidant Of Taking Series," Seattle Daily Times, March 19, 1917, 13.

(54)"Seattle Refuses To Be Disheartened At Loss Of First Game," Post-Intelligencer, March 19, 1917, 12.

(55)"Covering The Hockey Games With Rabid Rudolph," Post-Intelligencer, March 22, 1917, 9.

(56)"Seattle Men Upset The Dope And Trim 'Flying Frenchmen,'" Post-Intelligencer, March 21, 1917, 9.

(57)"Mets Triumph In Torrid Tilt With Flying Frenchmen," Seattle Daily Times, March 21, 1917, 13.

(58)"Hockey Fans Are Predicting Mets Will Win Series," Post-Intelligencer, March 22, 1917, 9.

(59)"Referee's Decision Lost Game, Declares Montreal's Manager," Post-Intelligencer, March 25, 1917, III: 1.

(60)"Canadians Protest Invalid," Spokesman-Review, March 26, 1917, 11.

(61)"Montreal Men Declare Mets' Win Unearned," Seattle Sunday Times, March 25, 1917, S2.

(62)"Referee's Decision Lost Game, Declares Manager," III: 2.

(63)"Seattle Boys Skate Rings Around Rival Team and Win Title," Post-Intelligencer, March 27, 1917, 9.

(64)"Mets Capture Hockey Title: Stanley Cup To Come Here," Seattle Daily Times, March 27, 1917, 17.

(65) Ibid., 17.

(66) Hollander and Bock, The Complete Encyclopedia of Ice Hockey, 205. Not only was the team name engraved onto the Cup, but eventually all of the individual players' names as well. This practice led to the addition of several "layers" of additional metal at the bottom of the Cup. Over the years, even these filled up to the point where there are now several Stanley Cups. Individual names are still engraved on the trophy today.

(67) "Covering the Hockey Games with Rabid Rudolph," Post- Intelligencer, March 28, 1917, 11.

(68) Stan and Shirley Fischler, Great Book of Hockey, 29.

(69) Whitehead, The Patricks, 143.

(70) Robert A. Styer, The Encyclopedia of Hockey (New York: 1970), 141.

(71) Howard Liss, The Giant Book Of Strange But True Sports Stories (New York: 1976), 122.

(72) Whitehead, The Patricks, 252.